Recommendations for Changes in Federal Law

Porn Studies > Meese Report Table of Contents

RECOMMENDATION 1:
Congress should enact a forfeiture statute to reach the proceeds and instruments of any offense committed under the Federal obscenity laws.

The addition of civil and criminal forfeiture provisions to the existing federal obscenity laws[90] would greatly enhance their deterrent effect. In addition to the penalties already prescribed by statute, a defendant would be subject to forfeiture of any profits derived from or property used in committing the offense. The Child Protection Act of 1984[91] presently contains such forfeiture provisions pertaining to offenses involving child pornography.[92]

The addition of forfeiture provisions in the federal obscenity statutes would have a profound effect on some of the most egregious offenders, especially those who are members of, associated with, or are influenced or controlled by, organized crime families. The forfeiture provision would affect those who profit by their illegal activity and who have created criminal enterprises large enough to own or lease real estate, fleets of motor vehicles, or other valuable assets. The loss of such valuable property would have a more significant deterrent effect than the mere imposition of a fine or modest period of incarceration which the offender may see as merely another "cost of doing business."[93] Forfeiture provisions would also aid law enforcement efforts by providing the government with property to be used in future undercover operations and perhaps even provide sufficient assets to reimburse a significant portion of investigative and prosecution costs.

According to the federal prosecutor in a series of Miami, Florida, obscenity cases commonly known as MIPORN where many of the defendants had tremendous assets scattered throughout the United States, forfeitures would have made a tremendous contribution toward underwriting the costs of the government investigation.[94]

Under current law even large scale and well-organized distributors of obscene material that have been repeatedly convicted retain their massive profits which they often use to finance other unlawful activity.[95] It is estimated that the film "Deep Throat" cost $25,000 to produce and has made profits of $50,000,000,[96] and few or none of these proceeds were paid to the "star" of the film, Linda Lovelace (now  Marchiano) or others involved in the actual production.[97] The film's profits were used allegedly by the Perainos, reported members of the Columbo organized crime family,[98] to develop Brtanston Films of Hollywood, which distributed the horror film, "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre,"[99] to purchase yachts, airplanes, islands and property in the Bahamas, and as seed money for drug smuggling activities.[100]

In recognition of the need to seize substantial profits gained through unlawful activity and to prevent their use in other crimes, Congress has authorized forfeiture for other crimes.[101] Any new legislation should be drafted and implemented in a manner similar to other present federal laws to insure due process of law to all parties in interest.[102]

The only present authority to permit the forfeiture of profits and instruments derived from the distribution of obscene materials is RICO. Through 1985 no federal RICO cases have been brought to forfeit profits or instruments used in or derived from obscenity law violations.[103] The RICO statute currently is inadequate to reach the profits and instruments without establishing and relying on proof of two or more predicate offenses. The proposed legislation would allow forfeiture in the many cases where RICO cannot appropriately be used.

RECOMMENDATION 2:
Congress should amend the Federal obscenity laws to eliminate the necessity of proving transportation in interstate commerce. A statute should be enacted to only require proof that the distribution of the obscene material "affects" interstate commerce.

Pursuant to provisions of 18 U.S.C. S1462 and 18 U.S.C. S1465 the United States is required to prove that the particular obscene material in question actually was transported in interstate commerce at a particular specified time and to and from particular and specified locations.[104]

This has become an increasingly insurmountable burden for federal prosecutors to meet in obscenity cases. Distributors of obscenity, especially those associated with or members of organized crime families, frequently avoid the mails and common carriers when they ship their wares. With the assistance of their attorneys such persons and organizations have developed intricate schemes of operation to prevent proof of this necessary element of the present statute.[105] They use their own trucks and sometimes make several stops or simulated deliveries or pickups along the way.[106] This process thwarts extremely expensive and time consuming surveillance by law enforcement officers and makes it virtually impossible to detect which items in a particular shipment actually crossed state lines.

The proposed amendment should take the form of an additional section of Title 18. Such sections should supplement existing sections 1462 and 1465 and include language which prohibits activities that "affect" commerce. The addition of such a statute would facilitate prosecutions while maintaining the integrity of the present statutory structure. In a multiple count indictment, charges could be brought against individuals under both sections, subject to constitutional limitations which exist in any such case. Legislation which creates a separate violation would prevent the effects of the inevitable and lengthy initial constitutional challenges to such new legislation from crippling or stopping all federal prosecutions.

A requirement that the prosecution prove the transaction "affects" commerce is a more realistic burden of proof which would close the technical loopholes these criminals have so successfully exploited. This requirement would be consistent with other federal statutes such as the Hobbs Act and the firearms laws.[107] An examination of the constitutional ramifications discloses no barrier to this proposed amendment.[108]

Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution empowers Congress to regulate commerce.[109] The interpretation and application of the constitutional limits on Congress' power to regulate has been the issue in many cases whose factual bases are widely divergent. The subject of regulation, whether it is production, distribution or consumption, is constitutionally immaterial so long as the activity in question is within the sphere of Congress' regulatory powers.[110] The underlying principles, however, have been applied consistently to a variety of factual situations. The particular subject matter of the statute should not present a barrier to a constitutionally valid amendment.

The distinction between regulating activities "in commerce" and regulating those which "affect commerce" is a valid one and has been maintained. The standards, however, have been recognized by the courts as being within the total ambit of Congress' constitutional regulatory powers.[111] The decision as to the scope of regulatory jurisdiction lies with Congress and is generally made as a matter of public policy rather than a decision dependent purely on legal considerations.

If the activity is other than purely local in nature it is subject to federal commerce power regulation. It is within this constitutional grant that Congress may exercise discretion in setting the limits of jurisdiction. Since Congress has already Constitutionally chosen to regulate the activity through 18 U.S.C. SS1462 and S1465, it may, if it chooses, expand the regulatory jurisdiction to include activities which "affect" commerce as well as those "in" commerce.

This Commission finds that virtually all distribution of obscene material substantially affects interstate commerce.

Department of Justice Guidelines now in effect for the United States Attorneys preclude federal prosecution of obscenity cases that properly belong in state courts.[112] Existing guidelines require the United States Attorneys to give higher priority to cases involving large scale distributors who realize substantial income from multi-state operations and cases in which there is evidence of involvement by known organized crime figures.[113] These are the types of cases that require the operational resources of the Department of justice and federal law enforcement agencies and are accordingly beyond the scope of local law enforcement capabilities.[114] The new section would be a substantial aid to federal prosecutors' efforts, but properly applied it would not result in any more federal encroachment on state prosecutors' prerogatives than present federal law permits.

RECOMMENDATION 3:
Congress should enact legislation making it an unfair business practice and an unfair labor practice for any employer to hire individuals to participate in commercial sexual performances.

This Commission does not advocate nor does it condone the use of individuals in commercial sexual practices. The Commission strongly supports enforcement of existing criminal laws against those who violate them by using individuals in commercial sexual performances or in the production of obscene materials. The Commission does, however, recommend imposing fair labor standards on those businesses which engage individuals to perform sexual acts for commercial purposes. This recommendation is made only out of an abiding concern for those persons used in these sexual performances.

The production of obscene material, like many forms of criminal activity, is an enterprise patterned after other legitimate business structures.[115] Producers of obscene material make capital investments, hire employees, and earn sizeable profits. Unlike other businesses, the regulations governing the production of obscenity are largely self-imposed or non-existent. This industry has been called the "last vestige of true laissez-faire capitalism" in the United States.[116] Unlike more conventional businesses and industries, profits from obscene materials go largely untaxed and their employees often suffer varying degrees of mental and physical injury.[117] Seldom, if ever, do employees maintain insurance, pay benefits or provide pension plans to performers or others who work for them.

Congress should enact legislation, as necessary, that would specifically subject the production of obscene materials to the same types of laws and regulations as other businesses. This would not necessarily involve criminal statutes or penalties, but rather it could take the form of civil regulatory statutes. These are not recommended as exclusive remedies, but as a form of regulation that parallels other existing forms of criminal and civil relief. The basis for these statutes is the government's broad powers to regulate commerce.

Legislation also should be enacted that would make it an unfair business practice and an unfair labor practice to hire individuals to participate in certain sexual performances for purposes of producing sexually explicit materials. Included in the prohibited activities should be sexual performances involving children, violence, sado-masochism, or anything which would meet the description of unlawful sexually explicit depictions developed in such federal law.

Congress should prohibit the sale and distribution of any product made as a result of those unfair practices and provide a civil cause of action for any party injured as a result of these practices.[118] The law should also provide protection for individuals who are used as actors or models in obscene material. Such legislation should make any contracts for prohibited performances void, and provide a formula for the determination of damages and payment of attorneys fees. Existing laws and regulations prohibit an employer from imposing dangerous, unhealthy, or unfair conditions of employment on an employee. Employees have a remedy if they are harmed in the course of their employment. None of these requirements have been applied to the pornography industry where these risks are truly pervasive. It is essential that the commercial laws and regulations be applied in a fair and even-handed manner. Business enterprises should be prevented from operating in a manner which jeopardizes the welfare of its employees.

RECOMMENDATION 4:
Congress should amend the Mann Act to make its provisions gender neutral.

The Mann Act[119] makes it a federal offense to transport "any woman or girl" in interstate or foreign commerce for the purpose of "prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose, or with intent and purpose to induce, entice, or compel such woman or girl to become a prostitute, or to give herself up to immoral practice, debauchery or to engage in any other immoral practice."[120] Men and boys who are used in prostitution and in the production of obscene materials are often transported in commerce for the very purposes proscribed in the present statute.[121] Those who exploit men and boys for illegal and immoral purposes should be subject to the same punishment as those who exploit females.

The proposed amendment would simply afford protection to a class of persons who are without adequate legal redress. While women and girls may continue to comprise the majority of such cases of exploitation these statistics should provide no excuse to exclude men and boys from equal protection purely on the basis of the smaller number of reported cases.[122]

Further, the Act should be amended to prohibit illegal acts rather than the current prohibition against immoral acts. This amendment would address and alleviate the concerns of those who suggest an overzealous prosecutor may use the Act to harass individuals engaged in lawful consensual sexual activity. This amendment would not expand the scope of enforcement or prosecution and it should set clear guidelines for the types of activities that are proscribed.

RECOMMENDATION 5:
Congress should amend Title 18 of the United States Code to specifically proscribe obscene cable and satellite television programming.

The United States Code proscribes the utterance of "any obscene, indecent or profane language by means of radio communication."[123] Because cable and satellite television programming is not conveyed by any means interpreted by the courts to be a radio communication, any obscene programming is not covered by the prohibitions of the present statute.

The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 attempts to provide another avenue for the prosecution of obscenity shown over cable television.[124] The Act, provides:

Whoever transmits over any cable system any matter which is obscene or otherwise unprotected by the Constitution of the United States shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than 2 years, or both.[125]

The provisions of this section may be in conflict with two other sections of the act governing editorial control of programming by cable operators. Section 531(e) of Title 47 provides that:

Subject to Section 544(d) of this title, a cable operator shall not exercise any editorial control over any public, educational or governmental use of channel capacity provided pursuant to this section.

In addition, Section 544(d) provides, in part:

(1) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as prohibiting a franchising authority and a cable operator from specifying, in a franchise or renewal thereof, that certain cable services shall not be provided or shall be provided subject to conditions, if such cable services are obscene or are otherwise unprotected by the Constitution of the United States. (2) (A) In order to restrict the viewing of programming which is obscene or indecent, upon the request of a subscriber, a cable operator shall provide (by sale or lease) a device by which the subscriber can prohibit viewing of a particular cable service during period selected by that subscriber.

Section 544(d) seems to contemplate allowing the operator to provide obscene programming while Section 559 makes it a crime to do so. The apparent conflict should be resolved and legislation should provide clear guidance for cable operations, federal prosecutors and law enforcement officers.[126]

RECOMMENDATION 6:
Congress should enact legislation to prohibit the transmission of obscene material through the telephone or similar common carrier.

This Commission has received substantial evidence of the use of the telephone to transmit obscene material.[127] Dial-A-Porn services offer the caller the opportunity to participate in obscene telephone conversations or to receive obscene messages.[128]

Two years ago, the Congress enacted legislation amending section 223 of the Communications Act of 1934.[129] This enactment prohibited the use of the telephone to make obscene or indecent communications for commercial purposes to anyone under eighteen years of age except where in compliance with regulations issued by the Federal Communications Commission.[130] The FCC promulgated regulations making it an exception for the provider of a recorded message if the message was made available only between the hours of 9:00 p. m. and 8:00 a. m. eastern standard time or if the caller made prepayment by credit card in the case of a "live" message.[131] Carlin Communications challenged the FCC regulation.

On review, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit found the regulations were invalid.[132] The court found that the government had a compelling interest in protecting minors from salacious material, but that the FCC regulations were not well tailored to meet their objectives, which could be achieved by less restrictive alternatives.[133] In dicta, the court said the FCC should have given more serious consideration to other options such as "blocking" and access codes. Through "blocking" a subscriber can have access to all "976" numbers blocked from his telephone. Access codes could be issued to subscribers over eighteen who would have to dial the code in order to receive the sexually explicit message."'

On October 16, 1985, the FCC announced new regulations governing Dial-A-Porn.[135] Under the new regulations, Dial-A-Porn services must require either an authorized access or identification code or they must obtain prepayment by credit card before transmission of a sexually explicit message.[136]

Carlin challenged the new FCC regulations, and on April 11, 1986, the Court of Appeals granted their petition and set aside the regulations as applied to Carlin.[137] The Court of Appeals relied on statements from New York Telephone that access or identification codes are not technologically feasible in NYT's network,[138] and found that "the record does not support the FCC's conclusion that the access code requirement is the least restrictive means to regulate Dial-A-Porn. . . ."[139] The Court again referred to "blocking" as a less restrictive means of regulating Dial-A-Porn.[140] Blocking devices installed on the telephone customer's own terminal equipment could be used to block access to one or more pre-selected telephone numbers.[141] The Court also suggested that the FCC should have considered the feasibility of passing along the cost of customer premises blocking equipment to the providers of Dial-A-Porn and/or the telephone companies.[142]

The latest decision by the Second Circuit leaves the state of the law regarding Dial-A-Porn even more uncertain. The two attempts by the FCC to promulgate regulations in accordance with the federal statute have failed. The Court of Appeals found earlier that limitations on the hours that Dial-A-Porn messages may be offered were not well tailored enough to regulate the problem.[143] Now the Court has ruled that access codes are unduly restrictive as applied to Carlin in New York, but may be permissible elsewhere.[144] The "blocking" option advanced by the Court has serious practical limitations. Blocking may not be available to all telephone customers.[145] Those who obtain the service would either lose access to all "976" numbers,[146] or have to pre-select which numbers they wanted blocked.[147] Few parents would have sufficient knowledge of the multitude of Dial-A-Porn numbers to be able to pre-select them and prevent their children from calling them by use of a blocking device, and minors would still be free to make the calls from telephones not equipped with blocking devices.

The provision of the federal statute permitting Dial-A-Porn messages to be provided in accordance with FCC regulations[148] has proven unworkable in addition to providing a "safe harbor" provision for Dial-A-Porn merchants. Congress should enact legislation that simply prohibits the transmission of obscene material through the telephone or similar common carrier.[149]

Porn Studies > Meese Report Table of Contents

Copyright 2005 pornstudies.net